The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος, Vasílion tis Elládos) was created at the 1832 London Convention under the auspices of France, the UK and Russia and following the Greek War of Independence (1821 – 1832). It was subsequently recognised internationally by the Treaty of Constantinople, which also secured Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire, the occupying power in Greece for centuries. The new Greek kingdom was the first independent Greek state since the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. It lasted until 1924, when it was replaced by a Hellenic Republic. The monarchy was nevertheless restored in 1934, survived the Axis occupation during World War II (1941 – 1944) and existed until 1975, when the current Hellenic Republic took power.
The Kingdom of Greece adopted as its flag a blue field with a white cross. The first King of Greece, the Bavarian prince Otto, added his coat of arms in the centre. This was removed following Otto’s abdication in 1862 and was replaced by a gold crown in 1863 at the accession of George I.